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  • Report on Cyber Security Alerts Processed by CERT-RO in 2014


    Author(s): CERT, RO
    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 1, Year 2015

    Download PDF | Views: 1,239

    CERT-ROThe objective of this report is to analyze cyber security alerts collected and processed by CERT-RO in 2014, in order to obtain an overview of the relevant events to risk assessment on cyber security IT infrastructure and electronic communications in Romania, located within the competence of CERT-RO.

    During the reporting period, ie 01.01 – 31.12.2014, CERT-RO received notifications (alerts) as follows:

    By cyber security alert, in the context of this document, we mean any signal containing an IP address or a URL (website), concerning a possible cyber security incident or event, that involves or may involve systems that belong to legal or non-legal persons part of the national cyberspace.

    Based on data collected, we identified the following:

    Types of alerts processed by CERT-RO

    CERT-RO collects data regarding cyber security incidents, events or alerts from several sources, as follows:

    The nature of the reported alerts, as well as the quantity of available data for each of the categories requires a different approach for each case.

    Alerts sent by automated systems require automatic processing. In this case, the received data it resumes to lists of IPs detected as doing malicious or suspicious activities over the Internet, and some extra details about the suspicious activity (timestamp, incident type, used ports, the attack etc.).

    Most of these alerts are automatically processed by CERT-RO and are sent to the ISPs who own the networks that contain the system which triggered the alert. Most of the time, in this type of alerts, CERT-RO has no exact information about the real user behind the IP address, so the identification process is passed to the internet service provider (ISP). Also, the ISP has the responsibility to forward the alert to the real client.

    Although this type of alerts does not provide details about the target, they provide an overview of the types of cyber threats that are affecting Romanian cyber infrastructures.
    Individual alerts as well as the alerts collected by CERT- RO, are considerably reduced in number, but the reported information about the incident is much more accurate and relevant (the affected organization, the source of the attack and the vector of attack).

    In most of the cases, the data is collected by CERT-ROs analysts from the affected entities, along with incident reporting. Statistically speaking, these types of alerts are valuable, because they reflect better the state of national cyber security.

    Statistics based on incoming alerts

    The number of alerts received by CERT-RO in 2014 has increased by 82% (78.767.749) as opposed to 2013 (43.231.149), the increase being displayed in the table below.

    cyber-security-alerts-2014
    Fig.1: Evolution of the number of alerts received in 2013-2014

    Distribution of alerts based on type

    The table and graph below render the distribution of the top 5 types of alerts received.

    cyber-security-alerts-2014-2
    Table 1: Distribution of alerts based on type

    cyber-security-alerts-2014-3
    Fig. 2: Distribution of alerts based on type

    Types of malware present in the Romanian cyberspace

    Identification of the type of malware was possible in 37.5% of the received alerts.

    cyber-security-alerts-2014-4
    Table 2: Top 10 malware types present in Romania in 2014

    Types of systems affected by alerts

    Identification of the operating system was possible in about 24.6% of all alerts.

    cyber-security-alerts-2014-5
    Table 3: Partitioning total alerts per types of affected operating systems

    Particularities of manually processed alerts

    Along with automatic alerts, during the given period, CERT-RO analysts have taken a series of cyber security alerts directly reported by individuals or organizations from Romania or from abroad, classified as manually processed alerts.

    They are considerably fewer than those received automatically, but contain more complete and relevant information about the incident, about the organization affected, like the source of the attack and the method of attack. In most cases, the data is collected from affected entities (legal or non-legal persons from Romania or abroad) by CERT-RO analysts, once the incident is reported.

    Thus, during the referenced period, CERT-RO collected 2244 manually processed alerts, distributed as follows:

    cyber-security-alerts-2014-6
    Table 4: Distribution of alerts types

    The remaining 9% of manually processed alerts fall into different classes and types of alerts such as botnets, spam, defacement, brute force, malware samples or dissemination of confidential data (disclosure of confidential data).

    The table below retrieves top 5 most affected types of systems, extracted from the manually processed alerts by CERT-RO.

    cyber-security-alerts-2014-7
    Table 5: Partitioning manually processed alerts
    based on types of affected systems

    .ro compromised domains

    For the given period, CERT-RO received alerts about 10.759 .ro compromised domains. From 710.000 domains registered in Romania in December 2013, the number represents about 1.5% of all .ro domains.

    Distribution of areas affected by the type of incident can be found in the table below:

    cyber-security-alerts-2014-8
    Table 6: .ro compromised domains

    Conclusions

    Following the above findings, the next conclusions can be drawn:

    Despite the technical aspects that make it impossible to identify the exact number of devices or people affected that are behind the over 2.4 million IP addresses or 78 million alerts reported to CERT-RO, it is important to remember that these cover about 24% of the national cyberspace (reported on the number of IPs assigned to RO) and, therefore, there are remedial measures necessary, involving all entities with technical or legal responsibilities.


    Additional Information

    Title: Report on Cyber Security Alerts Processed by CERT-RO in 2014
    Author(s): CERT, RO
    Publication: International Journal of Information Security and Cybercrime
    ISSN: 2285-9225, e-ISSN: 2286-0096
    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 1, Year 2015
    Section: Cyber-Attacks Evolution and Cybercrime Trends
    Page Range: 63-68



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